It’s not a secret that Indonesia has inhabitant problems since a few time ago. Indonesia is one of nations that has a high inhabitant quantity in the world. In 1990, the world inhabitant is 5,3 billion. 1,4 billion (26%) is poor society. In 2000, the world inhabitant is 6,1 billion. There are 20% of the world society has income above US$ 100 a day. However more than one billion world society just has income US$ 1 a day.
The society experts have a prediction that in 2015 the world inhabitant can be up to 7,2 billion. Indonesia has baby booming that estimated 220 million in 2008 will be 247,5 million people in 2015 and 273 million people in 2025.
This is a big problem for Indonesia because of the difference with United of States that has many inhabitants, but has a good quality. The Indonesia society quality is still low generally, looked from their education levels which 2/3 of society is under Junior High School. The Indonesian resources quality that still very low can increase a problem to the country because this inhabitant booming will have impacts to budget and health facilities, education, and foods. Besides that it can have impact on baby’s nutrient and increase the unemployment number.
There is a program that has been done by the Indonesian governor to restrain this inhabitant booming by The Planning Family Program. This program quite enough in inhabitant growth rate decreasing, but the classic problem is the implementation of this program is often ignored moreover after territory otonomy.
I will explain kinds of method that used in Planning Family Program to decrease the Indonesia inhabitant growth rate.
- Rhythm method
First, record the menstruation cycle duration for 3 months latest. Determine the shortest and longest duration menstruation. Then the shortest duration menstruation is decreased by 18 days and the longest menstruation cycle is decresed by 11 days. Two numbers that resulted is the fertile period. You must do coitus prohibition, besides that is a safe period.
The other method to determine safe period is by the body basalt temperature. Around the ovulation, the body basalt temperature will decrease. It’s about 24 hours after ovulation, the body basalt temperature will increase again up to higher than the temperature before ovulation. This phenomenon can be used to determine ovulation period.
- The Coitus Broken
Is pulling of penis from vagina before ejaculation. This thing is based on the fact that will aware of ejaculation firstly by some men and after that there are still one second before ejaculation. This short time can be used to take penis outside from vagina.
- Prolonged lactation
A lactation period increasing is often done to prevent pregnancy because as we know that the possibility to pregnant is lower when they always give suck their baby after bear. Lactation is related by prolactinemy and prolactin push on ovulation.
Is from 2 components: a chemical substance that can destroy spermatozoa and inactive vehiculum that needed to make cream/jelly.
Given into vagina as far as possible before coitus. This drug will be active after 5 minutes. The duration is about more than 20 minutes-1 hour.
Jelly is more diluted than crème. This drug is syringed into vagina by a tool. The duration is about 20 minutes-1 hour.
- Foam Tablet
First, tablet is immersed in water before using. Then into vagina as far as possible. The duration 30-60 minutes.
The slight thing, can be creased, and fused in water. This drug into vagina is a gel by a high dispersion level and spread on utery portio and vagina. The drug will be effective after 30 minutes.
- Postcoital Douche
The purpose is to remove sperma mechanically from vagina. The vinegar increasing is to get spermicide effect and keep the vagina acidity.
There are estrogen pill, progesteron, and combination (between estrogen and progesteron). Estrogen hormone can be contraceptions by influence ovulation, ovum, or implantation. Progesteron is to prepare endometrium to implantate and keep on pregnancy.
The contraception that used is long-acting progestin: Noretisteron enantat (NETEN) and Depomedroksi progesterone acetat (DMPA).
The progestin effectivity as contraception can be increased by put that progestin into delivery system. There are some kinds of delivery system: vagina ring, implant, and microcapsule.
Is a surgery that done on both of women Falloppii tube. As the first action to reach Falloppii tube is transabdominal surgery as laparotomy, mini laparotomy, laparoscope; and transvaginal surgery is like colpotomy posterior, culdoscope; and transservical surgery (transuterin) is like shutting histeroscopis tube lumen.
To shut lumen in tube can be done by tube cutting in some methods: Pomeroy, Irving, Uchida, Kroener, and Aldridge.
I have explain above some facts in Indonesia about one of inhabitant problems from colonial until now. The governor had long of durations determine Planning Family Program that in my opinion is quite effective to decrease inhabitant growth rate. However, unfortunately this program is not done well in entire parts this country. This is the time for us to support the Planning Family Program.
Written by Catherine Maname Uli
The References :
- Indonesia Abaikan KB, Ledakan Penduduk Mengancam. 2008. Available from the URL: http://www.sinarharapan.co.id/cetak/berita/read/indonesia-abaikan-kb-ledakan-penduduk-mengancam/
- Ledakan Jumlah Penduduk Mencemaskan. Program Keluarga Berencana Diabaikan. Available from the URL: http://cetak.kompas.com/read/xml/%202008/08/25/02130749/%20ledakan.jumlah.penduduk.mencemaskan